For the fulfilment of his requirements and selfishness, man has put so many effluents in the water that the quality of marine water has been spoilt. This is called marine pollution. In simple words, because of human and natural factors, the changes in the nature and quality of water which is harmful to both humans and other living beings is called marine pollution. In the ahead of this article, we will discuss the causes of marine pollution and effects of marine pollution.
Most Highlighted 6 Causes of Marine Pollution
There are various factors responsible for marine pollution. They are as follows:
1. Waste of Coastal Towns
The sea coast touches vast areas of the world. Thousands and thousands of towns and settlements are situated on sea coasts. The picture taken from the sky shows that the sea’s water near any city is darker than in other areas.
Thus releasing huge amounts of excreta and garbage into the sea. The ash, dirty water, dirt and dust produced while cleaning the machines, oil and grease, and industrial effluents pollute the marine water.
2. Polluted Water of Rivers
Thousands of rivers fall into the ocean. If their water is tested on their places of origin, it will be found clear and pure, but if we test the water on their edges and further on, it can be called very dangerous, and a healthy person cannot have it for more than three months.
So, these rivers clearly pour a great quantity of polluted water into the seas. On the single Ganga river, about 114 major cities have a population of about 50 thousand each. So this river pours all its effluents and sewage into the sea.
3. Oil Pollution
75% of the world’s oil is drilled from the sea bed; during this process, a thousand litres of oil mix in seawater. Some of it mixes in seawater while filling or emptying the tankers etc. Also, the oil wells in the sea leak continuously. Oil in seawater affects sensitive flora and fauna.
4. Role of Water Transport
Water transport is a traditional means of transport, but technical changes have occurred over time. Ships and boats constantly contribute iron, grease, oil, etc., to the waters. Sometimes due to accidents, the ship and its goods are down. Sailors take many things with them and throw them into the sea after use. Journeys are not short but prolonged over the years.
5. Atomic and Nuclear Tests
During the atomic and nuclear tests, elements such as uranium and thorium are used, releasing elements like strontium, cobalt, caesium, etc., with high destructive energy. They are lethal and in lethal doses. Almost all the countries with nuclear power perform these tests in the sea, especially the countries which don’t have open spaces.
For instance, France generally conducts nuclear tests in the Atlantic Ocean, while America also uses the Pacific Ocean as China. Sometimes there are explosions in the ships which carry these nuclear weapons. Thus the radioactive elements spread over the sea and dump in the deep sea. These nuclear effluents spread over the seawater.
6. Role of the Navy
All the countries on the sea have a Navy wing. The Navy use various kinds of artillery, equipment etc. Every destructive arm is used in wars; ships and water tankers break, and many things spread over the sea. As a result, so many toxic substances get assimilated into seawater and cause marine pollution on a large scale.
Miracle 3 Effects of Marine Pollution
Marine Pollution is harmful to all humans, the biosphere and the ecosystem because it affects them in many ways. These have been described thus:
1. Effect on Humans
Marine pollution affects human life in many ways. As a large part of the human population lives on Islands, their life and protection lie in whether the sea is polluted. Marine pollution would endanger their life.
- Because of polluted water, coastal people will suffer from many diseases, and these diseases, through communication, will spread in every part of the world and threaten human health.
- It can be said about coastal people that the sea is the only source of their livelihood. If the seawater is not pure, there is no possibility of fish nearby, and there will be a problem with food and employment for these people. Likewise, the air-waves over the sea, if polluted, will cause many diseases.
- Due to marine pollution, there is a possibility of an increase in the water temperature and the atmosphere. If 1% of the ice melts, then more than 1.3 population of coastal people/cities will drown. Currently, the existence of so many coastal countries is in danger.
2. Effect on Biosphere
The sea constitutes a major part of the biosphere. The sea creatures are safe as long as the water is pure. Every small fish and even the blue whale, the largest creature in the sea, is in due to the accident on 18 November 2002, in the sea near Spain, one oil tanker broke up and dumped 77 thousand metric tonne oil, which spread over the sea.
As a result, all the fish and other marine life in the 50 km area were destroyed. Such incidents are quite common on the coast of Spain; that’s why it is called the ‘Coast of Death’.
3. Effects on Ecology
Ecology can be in control when hydro-land and atmosphere, all these spheres, are in mutual equilibrium. Marine pollution destroys this balance; as a result, nature’s food chain breaks down. When the seawater becomes oily, it can absorb more sub heat and increase the surface water temperature, thus enhancing the possibility of melting sea ice and creating the situation of uplifting sea level.
Polluted acidified water falling on earth in rain drops or acid rain also contributes to marine pollution. Its bad effects we have already stated. The increase and decrease in sea temperature change the cycle of various monsoon winds, and due to this change, both climate and weather change.