The sample size in the study bears severe implications for the accuracy of the results. In this article, you will know the precautions need to determine sample size. This may adversely affect the objectives of the research. The sampling activity consumes the resources of the research. The sampling activity consumes resources too. If the sample size is kept high to achieve better and better accuracy so that the results meet the specified desired confidence interval at the desired confidence level. In that case, it increases the consumption of resources, i.e., time and money. It also may add to non-sampling errors.
On the other hand, to save on cost and time, we try to keep the sample size too low, it hampers the accuracy (increases sampling errors), or we have to compromise the confidence level. So, it is a problem where a trade-off is required, and an optimum sampling size needs to be determined. The sample size should be large enough to cater to the accuracy demanded (or the maximum error permitted) by the study. So this is the prime requirement of the study, that the maximum permissible error be specified by the researcher (or his client).
Factor Determine Sample Size
However, the size of the sample also gets influenced in one way or the other by the following factors:
1. Duration of Study
If the study takes a long duration (months or years), the sample size should be smaller.
2. Depth of Study
The deep study should have a smaller size of the sample.
3. Characteristics of Populations
A homogeneous population can produce good results even with a smaller sample. A heterogeneous population requires a large sample to produce good/desired results. It helps to determine sample size.
4. Technique of Sampling Used
Randomly selected unbiased samples of smaller size are more reliable than biased samples of larger size.
5. Precision and Confidence Level Required
A higher precision required from the study requires a larger sample. A higher confidence level desired also demands a larger sample.
6. Analysis Needs
If data analysis is complex, we require a smaller sample size. And if the number of classes to be created is higher, then we should increase the sample size.
7. Availability of Resources
The resources are at the disposal of the researcher. Mainly time and funds are essential factors. A constraint on both resources will force the researcher to keep the sample size smaller.
8. Availability of Expert Investigators
With the Availability of Expert Investigators, the sample size can be increased.
9. Time Constraint
Time Consumed per Sample due to distance or reach by other means, or time for observation/recording, etc., also constraints the sample size.