In this article, we will discuss the history of human resource management, or HRM. But first, we will give a short overview of human resource management. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function that helps managers find the right man for the right job. In other words, HRM concerns the people’s dimension in organizations.
Every organization is made up of people & its name in the mark is due to the organization’s people. HRM is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization for better business output. It is not only the management of the skills but also the attitudes & aspirations of people.
History of Human Resource Management
Modern human resource management has emerged through many stages, which summarise as follows:
1. The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution consisted mainly of developing machinery, linking power to machines & establishing factory systems & mass production. It was characterized by rapid technological change & increased specialization. As a result, the place of work shifted from residence to factory, and the employer lost personal touch with the employees. Increased mechanization and specialization made jobs routine and monotonous. It became necessary to appoint a separate person who could handle labor problems. However, labor was considered a commodity that could be bought and sold. Due to the prevailing political philosophy of laissez-faire, the government did little to protect the workers.
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2. Trade Unionism
Workers formed their unions to improve their lot. The basic philosophy underlying trade unionism was that through collective bargaining/support, the management can force to redress their grievances. Unions used Strikes, showdowns, walks out, picketing, boy cots & Sabotage for this purpose. Trade Union management gives rise to several personnel practices, e.g., collective bargaining, grievance handling system, arbitration, disciplinary procedures, employee benefits programs, etc.
3. Scientific Management
It was a development of far-reaching significance to human resource management. FW. Taylor developed four principles of Scientific management. These are the main points of the history of human resource management.
- Development of a true Science.
- Scientific selection & training of workers.
- The friendly cooperation between management & workers.
- Development of every worker to his Fullest potential.
The scientific management movement has a great influence on management. It led to the professionalization of management, human engineering, etc. But ethics of scientific management point out that the focus was mode technology, not on human factor en in industry.
4. Industrial Psychology
Industrial Psychologists stopped matching employee skills with jobs. Hugo Munsterberg contributed significantly to the job analysis in terms of their mental & emotional requirements & development of testing devices Advances took place in the selection, placement, testing, training, etc.
5. Human Relations Movement
Hawthorne Experiments & subsequent research focused attention on attitudes, the feelings of workers & their influence. The role of informal groups in Industry is Scientific management views an organization’s economic System it a social System attitude & Productivity highlighted. At the same time, a techno-human relations movement considered It was suggested that interpersonal Relations improve to realize the fuller potential of Individuals and groups.
6. Behavioural Sciences
Research in behavioral Sciences like anthropology, sociology, psychology, etc., has provided the subject matter for human Resource management. The behavioral sciences era led to the development of new techniques of motivation & leadership, e.g., Job enrichment, employer participation, two-way Communication, management by objectives, etc. Abicho Haslow, Douglas Megregor, Frederick Herzberg, Rensis Likert & others made significant contributions to the development of the behavioral science approach to the study of management.
7. Human Resource Specialist & Employer Welfare
With the dawn of the welfare era, the scope of human resource management increased. It is not only concerned now with recruitment, selection, and training of employees.
These are the most effective and actual stages in the history of human resource management.